Mike, that’s wonderful that you and the author were so closely aligned with the best approaches to take with these scenarios (the Martinez family and Carmen and Esteban). I’m not sure I would be able to recognize all the potential barriers and differences. While some of the offences fairly shouted out at me (especially the classism), other aspects of the culture were not as readily on my radar when I read through the scenarios.
I also struggled with determining exactly which interventions would be best with Carmen and Esteban. Obviously, the therapist got in the way with her own set of values. The best I came up with was helping both parties identify their values, and helping them identify what values they shared and which values they diverged on, so that they could determine with each other how and how much they were willing to make concessions to make their marriage work. The outcome may or may not have been the same, but I think that approach would at least be a little “cleaner” and more respectful of both parties in the room.